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Sunday, October 11, 2020

Hindu Terror: Groups and Leaders

 When blasts took place first at the Ajmer Dargah near Jaipur and then at the Mecca Masjid in Hyderabad, the police and the government immediately blamed Pakistani-based terror groups like the Lashkar-e-Toiba (LeT) and Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami (HuJi).


The attacks in Ajmer and Hyderabad took place nearly five months apart in 2007. Three people were killed in the Ajmer attack; another nine died in the Hyderabad explosion. Immediately after them, young Muslims were arrested in Hyderabad for Mecca Masjid blasts.

Three years later, new evidence suggests that the investigating agencies and the government got it all wrong. The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) says it believes that radical Hindu groups planned those blasts.

What's led to this new theory is the arrests last week of three men by the Rajasthan Anti-Terror Squad. They were tracked down because they were using SIM cards found in the debris after the attack at Ajmer.

The men arrested are all Hindus, and are believed to be associated to Abhinav Bharat, a Hindu radical group that India confronted for the first time in 2006.

In September 2006, a series of blasts in Malegaon in Maharashtra left 37 people dead and another 25 injured. Almost two years later, Mumbai Police Anti-Terrorism Squad arrested Sadhvi Pragya Thakur on October 10, 2008 and then serving army officer, Lieutenant Colonel S P Purohit, believed to be the leaders of Abhinav Bharat. Their alleged agenda: to target Muslim crowds.

Purohit, in recent interrogation, has allegedly said that a man named Sunil Joshi was behind the Ajmer blast. That's what the Rajasthan police also suspects. Sunil Joshi, who was an RSS pracharak in Madhya Pradesh's Mhow area, had links with Devendra Gupta, the first suspect arrested in the Ajmer Dargah case. Joshi, a resident of Indore, was killed in Dewas in December 2007. The call details of Gupta indicate that both were in touch.

"Colonel Purohit, arrested for Malgaon blast, has confessed that Sunil Joshi had organised the Dargah operation with the help of Devendra Gupta," Rajasthan Home Minister Shanti Dhariwal told the Hindu newspaper on May 2.

The CBI says that in both the Ajmer and Hyderabad blasts, identical explosives were used. Cellphones triggered both bombs.

So in two different cities, Pakistani groups were held responsible, and young Muslims paid the price. Muslims like Ibrahim Junaid, who, along with 25 others, was picked up from the Old City of Hyderabad and accused of terror links. They were reportedly tortured in illegal custody. There was no chargesheet accusing them of links to the Mecca Masjid attack. Instead they were accused of conspiring to wage war against the state, of preparing and playing out CDs of the Gujarat communal riots of 2002 to create communal tension.

Junaid was at that time was a Unani doctor; he was finally acquitted after 2 years.

"Without proof, they arrested our children. They didn't even inform us. We didn't know their whereabouts for 7-8 days," said Arifunnisa, Junaid's mother.

All 26 men were later acquitted but they say the stigma never goes away. Junaid says, "When there is a blast, youth of a particular community are targeted. They are playing with our lives. That happened to me. I lost a year in college. I was not able to do my MD because of this.''

Junaid and some of the other Muslims who were arrested have gone to court seeking compensation.

"We are demanding compensation from the police officers who tortured us. That they should be made to pay compensation from their salary, says Rayeesuddin.

 

CBI chief Ashwani Kumar on Monday said that there was a link between the three alleged hardline Hindutva activists arrested for 2007 blast in Ajmer and the Mecca Masjid, pointing to a network of saffron terror larger than so far believed. 

"There is a link between the Ajmer blast and Mecca Masjid blast," Kumar said on the sidelines of the annual D P Kohli Memorial Lecture on Monday. 

The CBI chief said the Rajasthan police along with their Andhra Pradesh counterparts and the CBI have been working on the links for the last six months. "We are coordinating our efforts. For the time being, we can only say that there is a link. We are hopeful of cracking the case," Kumar added. 

Radical Hindutva formations have already been identified as allegedly responsible for the second terror attack on Malegaon. With investigations suggesting that the Hindutva radicals had the motivation, reach and access to resources that they has so far not been suspected of, police will be looking closely at any sign of their involvement in other unsolved cases of attacks on Muslim targets — like the attack on Jama Masjid in the capital. 

The Maharashtra police have chargesheeted alleged jehadis in the first attack on a Malegaon mosque, but a demand to re-examine the case is very much likely. 

With the CBI breaking its silence over the alleged links between the two cases, Hyderabad-based Muslim groups called upon CBI to not just revisit the Mecca case but also probe the involvement of alleged Hindu terrorists Col P S Purohit and Sadhvi Pragya Singh Thakur who are accused in the 2008 Malegaon bombing. 

According to the agency, links have also been found with the Malegaon blast. Sources said that the links had been established due to the use of the similar modus operandi and explosives. The Rajasthan police informed CBI, which is probing the Mecca case, about the arrest last week of three accused — Devender Gupta, Vishnu Patidar and Chandrashekhar Patidar — in the Ajmer shrine blast case. The accused have links with the group, Abhinav Bharat.

 

Unfinished stories, goes an old idiom in Ajmer, find their denouement in Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti’s shrine. Perhaps, unfinished investigations do too. Two-and-a-half years after low-intensity blasts ripped apart the courtyard of the centuries-old shrine, the Rajasthan police arrested three men—Devendra Gupta, Vishnu Prasad and Chandrashekhar Patidar. Gupta, an RSS worker, was suspected to have bought the mobile phone and SIM card that triggered off the October 2007 blast in which three were killed. Till their arrest on April 30 this year, the story narrated by the investigators, lapped up by the establishment and reiterated in large sections of the media was that the Ajmer blast was the handiwork of jehadi terrorists.

The SIM-mobile phone-detonated bombs are similar in Ajmer and Mecca Masjid blasts, with RDX-TNT mix in proportion used by the Indian army.

The one troubling question—would jehadis target Muslim devout at a dargah?—can have complicated answers, as the body count at Lahore’s Data Ganj Baksh would testify. But in India, the question wasn’t even deemed worthy of being asked as a reasonable line of inquiry. The needle of suspicion remained firmly and automatically fixed on Islamic terrorists—young men from the community were detained at various stages of the investigation and interrogated at length—until the trail finally led to Gupta and pointed to radical Hindu nationalist groups instead. Says Rajasthan Anti-Terrorist Squad chief Kapil Garg: “We have arrested some people of that religion (Hinduism) and we’re dead sure we’re on the right track.”

In Hyderabad too, the CBI team believes it is on the right track, finally, in the Mecca Masjid bomb blasts case. Four men belonging to radical Hindu groups were arrested this May for triggering a high-intensity bomb that went off in the masjid complex in May 2007, killing 14 and injuring some 50. At that time, the Hyderabad police had said it was most likely the work of the Harkat-ul-Jehad-e-Islami (HuJI), backed by local logistical support; some 26 Muslim men were picked up, interrogated, forced to confess and detained for up to six months.

The terror trail in India changed after the Maharashtra ATS’s investigations into the 2008 Malegaon blasts, which alerted them to Abhinav Bharat.

The story followed this script till the CBI found evidence to the contrary: the SIM card-and-mobile phone-detonated explosives packed in metal tubes were strikingly similar to the Ajmer blasts contraption. Tellingly, both bombs are believed to have contained a deadly mix of RDX and TNT, in proportions often used by the Indian army. CBI director Ashwani Kumar told the media that an activist named Sunil Joshi “played a key role in orchestrating the Ajmer blast... and a set of mobile SIM cards that had been used in activation of the bomb-triggers in the Mecca Masjid blast was used again in the Ajmer blast”.

Around the same time, officers of the National Investigating Agency (NIA) filed a chargesheet in a Panjim court accusing 11 people, all Hindus and members of the ultra-right-wing Sanathan Sanstha, of masterminding and executing the October 2009 Margao blasts that killed the two people ferrying the explosives to a local festival. Investigation in Pune’s German Bakery blast this February has run aground after the initial suspicion, detaining and interrogation of suspected Muslim men, some believed to be members of “sleeper cells of jehadi groups” or the Indian Mujahideen (IM). When Abdul Samad was arrested last month, the Maharashtra ATS actively encouraged the understanding that he was the man caught on CCTV cameras in the bakery that night. However, Samad was never charged with the blast and subsequently let off in other cases too.


Malegaon Blasts-I
September 8, 2006
37 dead


* Initial arrests: Arrested include Salman Farsi, Farooq Iqbal Makhdoomi, Raees Ahmed, Noorul Huda Samsudoha and Shabbir Batterywala.
* Later revelation: Suspicion now rests on Hindu terrorists because of the 2008 blasts.

Samjhauta Express Blasts
February 18, 2007
68 dead, mostly Pakistanis


* Initial suspicion: LeT and JeM were blamed. Those arrested included Pakistani national Azmat Ali.
* Later revelation: Police have seen the evidence trail lead to right-wing Hindu activists. Investigators claim the triggering mechanism for the Mecca masjid blast three months later was similar to the one used here. Police are looking for RSS pracharaks Sandeep Dange and Ramji.

Mecca Masjid Blast
May 18, 2007
14 dead


* Initial arrests: Around 80 Muslims detained for questioning and 25 arrested. Several have now been acquitted, including Ibrahim Junaid, Shoaib Jagirdar, Imran Khan and Mohammed Adul Kaleem.
* Later revelation: In June 2010 the CBI announced a cash reward of Rs 10 lakh for information on the two accused, Sandeep Dange and Ramchandra Kalsangra. Lokesh Sharma arrested.

Ajmer Sharif Blast
October 11, 2007
3 dead


* Initial arrests: HuJI, LeT blamed. Those arrested include Abdul Hafiz Shamim, Khushibur Rahman, Imran Ali.
* Later revelation: In 2010, Rajasthan ATS arrests Devendra Gupta, Chandrashekhar and Vishnu Prasad Patidar. Accused Sunil Joshi, who was killed weeks before the blast, is believed to have been a key planner.

Thane Cinema Blast
June 4, 2008


* Affiliated to Hindu Janjagruti Samiti and Sanathan Sanstha, Ramesh Hanumant Gadkari and Mangesh Dinkar Nikam arrested. Blast planned to oppose the screening of Jodhaa Akbar.

Kanpur And Nanded Bomb Mishaps
August 2008


* Two members of Bajrang Dal—Rajiv Mishra and Bhupinder Singh—were killed while assembling bombs in Kanpur. In April 2006, N. Rajkondwar and H. Panse from the same outfit died under similar circumstances in a bomb-making workshop in Nanded.

Malegaon Blasts II
September 29, 2008
7 dead


* Initial suspicion: Groups like Indian Mujahideen involved
* Later revelation: Abhinav Bharat and Rashtriya Jagaran Manch accused of involvement. Arrested include Pragya Singh Thakur, Lt Col Srikant Purohit and Swami Amritanand Dev Tirth, also known as Dayanand Pandey.

Goa Blasts
October 16, 2009


* 2 dead Both accused are members of the Sanathan Sanstha. Malgonda Patil and Yogesh Naik were riding a scooter laden with explosives, which accidentally went off.

Terror trails in India dramatically changed with the Malegaon blasts investigation in September-October 2008. Led by then Maharashtra ATS chief Hemant Karkare, who was subsequently killed on the night of 26/11, the investigation pointed to Abhinav Bharat (AB), an ultra-right-wing Pune-based organisation established in 2005-06, and its members or affiliates. What Karkare’s teams managed to uncover is part of recent history and should have become the basis of examining and monitoring the new phenomenon of Hindutva terror but didn’t.

The Hindutva links to Mecca Masjid, Ajmer and other low-intensity blasts have been in the public domain for close to two years; the signs were visible since 2002-03 when an ied found at the Bhopal railway station was traced back to local Hindutva activists Ramnarayan Kalsangra and Sunil Joshi. They were questioned, but no evidence was found. Yet, it prompted Congress leader Digvijay Singh to declare a Bajrang Dal hand. Later in 2006, there were explosions in the houses of Hindutva activists in Nanded and Kanpur, where ieds were being prepared. Through that year, mosques in several towns in Maharashtra—Purna, Parbhani, Jalna—were rocked by low-intensity blasts; the Nanded one was meant for a mosque in Aurangabad. Recovered with a map of Aurangabad were false beards and Muslim male outfits. That should have been warning enough.

However, till May-June this year, the establishment did not either see these warning signals or chose to ignore them—except for a brief two-month period in 2008 when Karkare led the Malegaon probe. Now, it may be difficult to sustain the denial. “For the last 10 years, stories about Hindu right-wing violence have been trickling out. Instead of a systematic investigation, there has been an event-to-event investigation. The larger story has remained underinvestigated and under-reported,” says Mumbai advocate and human rights campaigner Mihir Desai. The CBI is only now seeking directions from the Union home ministry to see the Ajmer, Mecca Masjid, Malegaon and other blasts in conjunction after there has been no conclusive evidence of the involvement of Islamic groups.

Malegaon 2008 provided the much-needed aperture to review the role of Hindutva groups. In September that year, eight people were killed and many injured in a low-intensity blast. The ATS investigation led to Sadhvi Pragya Singh Thakur, whose motorcycle was used to explode the bomb, and then to 13 others, including self-styled guru Dayanand Pandey and Lt Col Prasad Shrikant Purohit, the first-ever serving officer to be charged. During interrogation, he had disclosed to ATS investigators that he had provided the RDX in the Mecca Masjid blasts too but the ATS was reportedly asked not to make it public as the Hyderabad police had detained HuJI suspects. The similarity with the Ajmer Sharif blasts was evident too.

The 4,528-page chargesheet filed in the Malegaon case offers insight into the grand design of the Abhinav Bharat and its affiliates. Purohit, the Sadhvi and others had spoken to one another “to avenge bomb attacks on Hindu shrines” and had engineered a series of blasts with the larger ambition to establish a “separate Hindu rashtra”. Abhinav Bharat—whose original avatar was started by Veer Savarkar, later disbanded, and restarted by Himani Savarkar—was set up to achieve this ambition. “This organised crime syndicate,” states the chargesheet, “wanted to adopt a national flag, that is, a solo-themed saffron flag with a golden border...with an ancient golden torch.”

Malegaon honoured Karkare by naming a chowk after him—the tribute of a relieved town to a man they believed would have led them to the truth about the September 2006 blasts too. Three bombs had gone off that Friday afternoon near a mosque and cemetery, killing 37 and injuring 100. Typically, Muslim men alleged to be members of the proscribed SIMI were picked up, interrogated and forced to confess. But the chargesheet had several loopholes—main accused Mohammed Zahid, though a SIMI activist, was leading prayers in a village 700 km from Malegaon that day; conspirator Shabbir Masiuallah had been in police custody a month before the blasts, police sketches made on the basis of eyewitness accounts showed clean-shaven men while all accused had kept beards for years.

The Rajasthan ATS now believes that Devendra Gupta, linked to the Ajmer blasts, was in touch with AB members through RSS pracharak Sunil Joshi. Providing the other end of the link, the Maharashtra ATS says the Sadhvi, enraged when Joshi was killed by suspected SIMI activists in September 2007, ordered the 2008 Malegaon blast. Joshi has also been linked to the Samjhauta Express blasts which killed 68 people, all Pakistanis. The evidence has come from Purohit’s reported phone conversation as narrated by an unnamed witness.

Yet, the story has several loose ends, most critical among them being fugitives Ramnarayan Kalsangra, Swami Aseemanand and others. Kalsangra, investigators in Maharashtra and Rajasthan say, was introduced to Devendra Gupta by the Sadhvi and is believed to be an expert at assembling bombs. Finding Kalsangra is crucial since all accused in custody have named him as “the man”. Ajmer, Mecca Masjid, Malegaon, Samjhauta Express and several other blasts are clearly part of a larger story. Only when the CBI puts all the pieces together will the entire Hindutva terror picture emerge, if at all.

 

Two days after stoking a controversy by accusing BJP and RSS of conducting terror training camps and promoting " Hindu terrorism", the Union home ministerSushilkumar Shinde on Tuesday got an official backing of his remarks from home secretary R K Singh. The senior bureaucrat emphasized that the government has names of at least 10 people involved in several blasts, who were associated with the RSS. 

Though Singh did not mention anything about BJP or existence of any training camp that might be promoting terrorism as claimed by Shinde, he disclosed the names of 10 people against whom investigating agencies have evidence. 

"During investigation of Samjhauta Express, Mecca Masjid and (Ajmer) Dargah Sharif blasts, we have found at least 10 names who have been associated with the RSS at some point or the other," Singh said. 

Responding to a question whether government has any evidence linking RSS with any person involved in any terrorist strike anywhere in the country as claimed by Shinde, the home secretary said, "We have evidence against them. There are statements of witnesses". 

Names disclosed by Singh are of those who were either arrested by the National Investigation Agency (NIA) or are absconders for their alleged roles in Samjhauta Express, Ajmer Sharif Dargah, Mecca Masjid and Malegaon blasts at different points of time. 

Incidentally, Singh did not take name of the RSS senior leader Indresh Kumar whose name is there in the NIA's chargesheet as one of the "suspect" in the Samjhauta Express blast case - an indication that the investigating agency hasn't any corroborative evidence against him so far. 

The names that were made public by the home secretary had links with the RSS in one or the other way. 

These names — part of the report sent by the NIA to the home ministry — include slain RSS activist Sunil Joshi who was allegedly involved in Samjhauta Express and Ajmer Sharif Dargah blasts. Joshi was an "activist of RSS" in Dewas and Mhow from 1990s to 2003. 

The other nine include two absconders — Sandeep Dange and Ramji Kalsangra — and seven arrested accused like Lokesh Sharma, Swami Aseemanand alias Naba Kumar Sarkar, Rajender alias Samunder, Mukesh Vasani, Devender Gupta, Chandrasekhar Leve and Kamal Chauhan. 

The NIA's report claimed that Dange, who was allegedly involved in Samjhauta Express, Mecca Masjid and Ajmer Sharif Dargah blasts, was "RSS pracharak" in Mhow, Indore, Uttarkashi and Sajhapur from 1990s to 2006 while Lokesh Sharma - accused in Samjhauta Express and Mecca Masjid blasts — was the RSS "nagar karyavahak" in Deogarh. 

Similarly, Aseemanand - chargesheeted in Samjhauta Express blast case — was "associated with RSS wing Vanavashi Kalyan Parishad" in Dang, Gujarat, in 1990s to 2007, while Rajender (Samjhauta and Mecca Masjid blasts accused) was "RSS varg vistarak". 

Ajmer Sharif Dargah accused Mukesh Vasani was an "activist of RSS" in Godhra. The report also claimed that Devender Gupta, involved in Mecca Masjid blast, was a "RSS pracharak" in Mhow and Indore. Chandrasekhar - a Mecca Masjid accused — was a "RSS pracharak" in Shajhanpur in 2007, while Kamal Chouhan (Samjhauta and Mecca Masjid blasts accused) was a "RSS activist". 

The NIA also claimed that the absconder Ramji Kalsangra was a "RSS associate". He was involved in Samjhauta Express and Mecca Masjid blasts. 

Names of five of them - Aseemanand, Joshi, Sharma, Dange and Kalsangra — had figured in the Samjhauta Express charge-sheet, filed by the NIA in June 2011. Though the RSS leader Indresh Kumar was not an accused in the case, the agency referred to him thrice in the chargesheet stating that his involvement in the conspiracy is "highly suspected". 

Kumar's name is figured as "suspect" on the basis of his meeting with the perpetrators twice during 2005-06 when they "discussed about jihadi attacks on Hindu places of worships and the need to give befitting replies". 

These meetings were followed by similar secret gatherings of select people which finally culminated into terror attacks not only on Samjhauta Express train, but also blasts in dargah Ajmer Sharief, Mecca Masjid (Hyderabad) and twice in Malegaon under the radicals' "bomb ka badla bomb" plan. The NIA had earlier referred to Kumar as "suspect" in the Ajmer blast case as well. 

The NIA, in its 24-page chargesheet, had claimed that "investigation has brought out strong suspicion about the role of some more persons in the conspiracy as well" and therefore further probe in the case would be continued. 
 

 

Investigations and allegations

Hindu extremist organisations have been accused of involvement in terrorist attacks including 2006 Malegaon blastsMecca Masjid bombing (Hyderabad), Samjhauta Express bombings and the Ajmer Sharif Dargah Blast.[7][8][9][10][11][12]

[edit]Investigation of Ajmer Dargah blast

A blast shook the sufi shrine of Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti at Ajmer on 11 October 2007 at 6:20 pm, leaving two dead and eleven injured. The blast was initially blamed on the Pakistani terrorist group LeT.[13] However, in 2010, The ATS arrested five individuals for the blast, four of whom were members of the Hindu Nationalist group RSS.[14][15] Swami Aseemanand, in his confession, also admitted the involvement of former RSS members and the Inter-Services Intelligence in the blast.[16][17][18] Aseemanand later retracted his "confession" and his lawyer said the confession was not voluntary and made under extreme pressure.[19]

[edit]Investigation of Samjhauta Express bombing

Initially the primary suspects of the bombing were considered to be Pakistan-based terror groups like the LeT and the JeM.[20] In November 2008, it was reported that Indian officials also suspected the attacks were linked to Prasad Shrikant Purohit, an Indian army officer and member of Hindu nationalist group Abhinav Bharat.[21] Wikileaks reports name David Headley as behind the Samjhauta attacks.[22] On January 8, 2011, Swami Aseemanand allegedly confessed that Saffron terror outfits were behind the bombing of Samjhauta express,[23] a statement later alleged to be obtained under duress.[19][24][25] His confessions included allegations that Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) was supporting the activities logistically.[18][26] On March 31, 2011 Aseemanand redacted his confession, citing government pressure. Security analyst B. Raman has termed this investigation as a "partisan political game.".[27] On July 18, 2011 Swami Aseemanand further unveiled that NIA had fabricated evidence against him and his arrest was illegal. He further alleged that he was tortured to give wrong statements.[28][29] On November 29, 2011 the Punjab and Haryana High Court issued notice to the NIA on a petition filed by Swami Aseemanand.[30] Kamal Chauhan a former RSS member confessed that he planted a bomb on the Delhi-Lahore Samjhauta Express that killed 68 people. This was under the leadership of Joshi a former RSS zila pracharak in Madhya Pradesh, who quit RSS for its diversion from the core idealogies.[31][32]

[edit]Investigation of 2008 Malegaon blasts

Police filed a chargesheet that named Indian Army officer Lt Col Prasad Purohit as the alleged main conspirator who provided the explosives, and Sadhvi Pragya Singh Thakur as the alleged prime accused who arranged for the men who planted the explosives.[33]

A 4,000-page chargesheet, filed by Maharashtra Anti-Terrorism Squad (ATS) before the Special MCOCA court here, stated that Purohit joined the right-wing Hindu group Abhinav Bharat in 2007 with an alleged intention to ‘propagate a separate Hindu Rashtra with its own Constitution’. According to the document, the Army officer allegedly collected ‘huge amounts’ to the tune of Rs 21 lakh for himself and Abhinav Bharat to promote his "fundamentalist ideology."[33]

It was in the aftermath of the September 29 bomb blast in the predominantly Muslim town[34] of Malegaon in Maharashtra that the alleged terms Saffron Terror and Hindutva Terror came to be used widely in various medias. [35] However, the accused parties confessed to police on narco-analysis that a group of Muslim individuals was used to obtain the RDX used in the blast.[36] However, Purohit allegedly admitted that a splinter group with tenuous ties to him had executed two blasts in India, which prompted investigators to look into the blasts in Ajmer and Hyderabad.[37]

Three men accused of the 2006 Malegaon bombings, including Lt Col Shrikant Purohit of the India army and Pragya Singh Thakur, have been described as representing Saffron terror. [38][39] Purohit was also accused of being involved in the 2007 Samjhauta Express bombings }</ref>

[edit]Investigation of Mecca Masjid bombing

Friday, March 03, 2017

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Malayalam names of Herbal plants

Malayalam names of Herbal plants

 
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List of Herbal Plants in Malayalam, Names of Medicinal Plants in Malayalam Alphabetic order

Click on the names to find the details

അകത്തി

Hummingbird tree, Sesban

Sesbania Grandiflora (Linn.) Pior. Papilionaceae

അക്രോട്ട്

Indian Walnut, Candle-Nut

Aleurites Moluccana Willd. 

അകിൽ

Aloe Wood, Eagle Wood

Aquilaria Agallocha Roxb. Thymelacaceae

അക്കക്കാരം

Pellitory, Mount Atlas daisy

Anacylus Pyrethrum Dc. Compositae Asteraceae

അഗ്നിശിഖ

Fire Flame Bush, Downy Grislea

Woodfordia Fruticosa, Floribunda Lythraceae

അഘോരി

Governor’s Plum

Flacourtia Ramoutchi Fam., Indica Merr.

അങ്കോലം

Sage Leaves

Alangium Salviifolium Wang.

അടതാപ്പ്

Yam, Air potato

Dioscorea Bulbifera Linn. Dioscoriaceae

അടപതിയൻ

Ada-koden-Adapathiyan, Jeevanti, Ksheerini

Holostemma Annularis, Asclepias Asclepiadaceae

അടമ്പ്

Goat’s Food Creeper

Ipomoea Perscaprae (Linn.)/ Biloba Forssk.

അടയ്ക്കമണിയൻ

East Indian Globe Thistle

Sphaeranthus Indicus Linn., Hirtus Willd.

അടയ്ക്കാ

Betel Nut- Seed 

 Aracanut

അണ്ണാൻപച്ച

Basket ferns, Oak leaf Fern

Dryhnaria Quercifolia, Polypodium Quercifolium

അണലിവേഗം

Poison Devil tree

Alstonia Venenata R. Br. Apocynaceae

അത്തി

Cluster Fig, Country Fig

Ficus Racemosa Linn. , Glomerata

അതിവിടയം

Indian Aconite

Aconitum Ferox Wall., Nepillus Linn. Ranunculaceae

അപ്പ

Angular Curved Physic Nut

Jatropha Curcas Linn. Euphorbiaceae

അപ്പ, നായ തുളസി 

Appa Grass

Ageratum Conyzoides Linn. Asteraceae

അമ്പഴം

Indian Hog Plum, Wild Mango

Spondias Pinnata, Mangifera Willd. Anacardiaceae

അമ്മകറുമ്പി

Wild mussaenda

Mussaendra Frondosa Linn. , Flavescens Rubiaceae

അമര

Flat Bean, Goa Bean, Indian Bean

Dolichos Lablab Linn.

അമൃത്

Heartleaf Moonseed, Giloy

Tinospora Cordifolia Miers Menispermaceae

അയമോദകം

Kings’ Cumin, Bishop’s Weed

Trachispermum Amami Linn. Sprague. Umbelliferae

അയ്യപ്പന

Ayapana Tea

Eupatorium Triplinerve Vahl., Ayapan Compositae

അരംപാലി 

Mountain Ebony

Bauhinia Racemosa Roxb. Leguminosae

അരണമരം

Mast Tree, Cemetery Tree

Polyalthia Longifolia (Sonn.) Thwaites

അരത്ത

Cardamom ginger, Greater galangal

Alpinia Calcarata

അരത്ത-ചിറ്റരത്ത 

Zadoary (Root), Spiked Ginger Lily

Hedychium Spicatum

അരയാൽ

Sacred Fig, Peepal Tree

Ficus Religiosa Linn. Urticaceae

അരളി

Indian Oleander, Rose Berry

Nerium Indicum Mill. , Odorum Soland.

അരിപ്പൂ

Wild Sage, Lantana Weed

Lantana Camara Linn. , Aculeata Verbenaceae

അരൂത

Garden Rue

Ruta Graveolens Linn, Chalepensis Rutaceae

അരേണുകം

Wild jute-Mallow leaves

Corchorus Acutangulus, Aestuans Tiliaceae

അലക്കുചേര്

Marking Nut  Fruit  

Semecarpus Anacardium

അഴുകണ്ണി

Alkaliweeds

Cressa Cretica Linn. Convolvulaceae

അശ്വഗന്ധ

Winter Cherry, Indian Ginseng

Withania Somnifera (L.) Dunal.

അശോകം

Ashoka Tree

Saraca Indica Linn, Asoka Wilde Caesalpiniaceae

ആടലോടകം

Malabar Nut

Adhatoda Vasaka Nees, Justica Adhatoda Linn.

ആനക്കൂവ

Crepe Ginger Rhizome

Costos Speciosus

ആനച്ചുവടി

Elephant’s Foot, Prickly Leaves

Elephantopus Scaber Linn. Compositae

ആനതിപ്പലി

Elephant pepper, Galapippaly

Scindapsus Officinalis Schott. Araceae

ആനപ്പരുവ

Climbing Arroid

Pothos Scandens

ആമ്പൽ

Water-Lilly

Nymphaea Stellata, Euryale Ferox

ആമ്പൽ-വെള്ള 

White Water Lily

Nymphaea Alba Linn.Castalia Alba

ആറ്റുപേഴ്

Hijjal, Freshwater Mangrove

Barringtonia Acutangula Gaertn. Myrtaceae

ആറ്റുവഞ്ചി

Attuvanchi

Homonoia Riparia Lour. Euphorbiaceae

ആഴാന്തൽ

Indian trumpet, Broken born

Oroxylum Indicum

ആവണക്ക്

Castor, Eranda 

Ricinus Communis

ആവര

Mature Tea Tree, Tanner’s Cassia

Cassia Auriculata Linn. Caesalpiniaceae

ആവല്

Indian Elm

Holopteila Integrifolia

ആശാളി

Garden Cress, Water Cress

Lepidium Sativum

ഇഞ്ച

Soap bark

Acacia Caesia Willd., Intsia Mimosaceae

ഇഞ്ചി

Ginger

Zinziber Officinalis Rosc. , Linn.

ഇഞ്ചിമാങ്ങ

Round Zedoary, white turmeric

Curcuma Zedoria Rosc. Scitaminaceae

ഇടംപിരി വലംപിരി

East Indian Screw Tree

Helicteres isora

ഇടന

Malabar leaf, Indian bark.

Cinnamomum Tamala Nees & Eberm. Lauraceae

ഇത്തിൾ

Loranthus

Dendrophthoe Falcata, Loranthus Coriaceus

ഇന്ദ്രവാരുണി

Bitter Apple

Citrullus Colocynthis Schrad. Cucurbitaceae

ഇരട്ടിമധുരം

Licorice

Glycyrrhiza Glabra Linn. Papilionaceae

ഇരവി

Indian Gamboge

Garcinia Morella Desr. Guttiferae

ഇരുമ്പുരുക്കി

Bollywood, bollygum

Litsea Glutinosa C. B. Robins Lauraceae

ഇരുവേലി

Iruvale

Coleus Vettiveroides, Plectranthus Vettiveroides 

ഇലകള്ളി

Milk Hedge

Euphorbia Neriifolia

ഇലഞ്ഞി

Bullet-Wood Tree

Mimusops Elengi Linn. Sapotaceae

ഇലന്ത

Jujube, Chinese Date

Zizyphus Jujuba Lam. Non Mill. , Vulgaris Lam.

ഇല്ലി

Bamboo

Bambusa Bambos

ഇലവ്

Silk Cotton Tree

Bombax Malabaricum Schott & Endl.

ഇലുപ്പ

Indian Butter Tree, South Indian Mahua

Madhuca Longifolia Linn. , Bassia Longifulia

ഇലുമ്പി പുളി

Country Goose Berry, Bilimbi, Tree sorrel

Averrhoa Acida Oxalidaceae

ഈട്ടി

Black Wood, Rose Wood

Dalbergia Sissoo Roxb. Papilionaceae

ഈന്ത്

Sago palm, Queen sago

Cycas Circinalis Linn. Cycadaceae

ഈന്തപ്പന

Wild Date, Date Sugar Palm

Phoenix Sylvestris Roxb. Palmae

ഈശ്വരമൂലി

Indian Birthwort

Aristolochia Indica Linn. Aristolochiaceae

ഉണക്കമുന്തിരി

Raisin, Dry Grapes

Vitis Vinifera

ഉന്നം

Jew Mallow

Grewia Populifolia Tiliaceae

ഉപ്പട്ടി

White Mangrove

Avicennia Officinalis

ഉപ്പുചീര

Sand Herbage

Gisekia Pharnaceoides Linn. Ficoidaceae

ഉലുവ

Fenugreek

Trigonella Foenum-Graecum Linn. Papilionaceae

ഉഴുന്ന്

Green Gram, Black Gram

Phaseolus Mungo Linn. , Vigna Mungo Hepper

ഉഷാമലരി

Madagascar Periwinkle

Catharanthus Roseus G.Don. , Vinca Rosea Linn.

എരുമക്കള്ളി

Yellow Thistle, Mexican Poppy

Argemone Mexicana Linn. Papaveraceae

എരുമനാക്ക്

Roughleaved fig, creeping fig

Ficus Hispida Linn. Urticaceae

എലിപ്പയർ

Indian caper

Capparis Zeylanica

ഏകനായകം

Salaretin

Salacia Reticulata Wight

ഏലം

Green Cardamom (Small)

Elettaria Cardamomum Maton Scitaminaceae

ഏഴിലംപാല

Devil Tree, Shaitan Wood

Alstonia Scholaris Linn. Apocynaceae

ഐറിസ്‌

Oris Root

Iris Vesicolor Thunb. , Germanica Linn. Iridaceae

ഒട്ടകമുള്ള്

Camel thorn, Persian Manna Plant

Alhagi Pseudalhagi Desv. , Maurorum Desv.

ഒടിയന്മരം

Woodier, Indian Ash Tree

Lannea Grandis Engl., Odina Woodier Roxb.

ഒതളം

Dog-Bane, Odallum Tree

Cerbera Odollam Gaertn. Apocynaceae

ഒരുകാൽഞൊണ്ടി

Panicled Foldwing

Peristrophe Paniculata

ഒരുവേരൻ, ചെറുതേക്ക് 

Bharang

Clerodendron Serratum 

ഒരുവേരൻ

Hill glory bower

Clerodendrum Infortunatum Linn., Viscosum Vent.

ഓടൽ

Monkey’s bridge

Sarcostigma Kleinii W&A. Icacinaceae

ഓമയ്ക്ക, കപ്പളം

Papaya

Carica Papaya Linn. Caricaceae

ഓരില

Desmodium

Desmodium Gangeticum

ഓറഞ്ച്

Loose-Skinned Orange, mandarin orange

Citrus Reticulata Rutaceae

കംബിളിനാരങ്ങ

Pomelo, Shaddock 

Citrus Decumana Linn. Rutaceae

കച്ചപ്പട്ട

Kachapatta

Pittosporum Tetraspermum

കച്ചോലം

Aromatic ginger, Kencur, Sand ginger

Kaempferia Galanga Linn., Curcuma Zedoria

കഞ്ചാവ്

Indian Hemp, Ganja, greengrass

Cannabis Indica Linn. , Sativa Urticaceae

കടപ്ലാവ്‌

Breadfruit tree

Artocarpus Communis Forst. , Incisus Linn. F.

കടമ്പ്‌

Wild Cinchona, Kadam tree

Anthocephalus Cadamba

കടൽത്തെങ്ങ്

Sea Coconut Palm, Double Coconut Palm

Lodoicea Sechellarum, Maldivica Pers. Arecaceae

കടല

Chicken Pea, Bengal Gram

Cicer Arietinum Linn. Papilionaceae

കടലാവണക്ക്

Purgative Croton

Croton Tiglium Linn. Euphorbiaceae

കടുക്

Brown Mustard, Indian Mustard

Brassica Juncea Linn. Cruciferae

കടുക്ക

Chebulic Myrobalan

Chebulic Myrobalan,  Terminalia Chebula 

കണ്ടകാരിച്ചുണ്ട

Indian Solanum, Yellow-Berried Nightshade

Solanum Xanthocarpum Schrad, Surattense Burm.

കണ്ടത്തിൽ കാന്താരി

Primrose Willow

ludwigia hyssopifolia

കണിക്കൊന്ന

India Laburnum, Purging Cassia

Cassia Fistula Linn. Caesalpiniaceae,

കദളിപ്പഴം

Banana

Musa Paradisiaca

കനകാംബരം 

Porcupine flower

Barleria Prionitis Linn. Acanthaceae

കപ്പ

Tapioca

Manihot Esculenta Crantz, Utilissima Pohl

കപ്പളം

Papaya

Carica Papaya Linn. Caricaceae

കയ്യൂന്നി

False Daisy

Eclipta Alba Hassk. , Prostrata Linn. Compositae

ക്യാരറ്റ്

Carrot

Daucas Carota Linn. Umbelliferae

കരടിപ്പുല്ല്

Water Chestnut

Scirpus Kysoor, Grossus Linn. Cyperaceae

കരിംകുരിഞ്ഞി

Sahachara, kurinji, Blue fox tail

Nilgirianthus Ciliatus / Strobilanthes Ciliatus

കരിംകൂവളം

Bael

Aegle Marmelos Corr. Ex. Roxb. Rutaceae

കരിംജീരകം

Black cumin seed

Carom Bulbocastanum, Nigella Sativa

കരിങ്ങാലി

Black Catechu, Cutch Tree

Acacia Catechu

കരിങ്ങോട്ട

Niepa Bark Tree

Samadera Iindica Gaertn / Quassia Indica Gaertn.

കരിഞ്ചീരകം

Caraway Seeds

Carum carvi

കരിനോച്ചി

Five-Leaved Chaste Tree

Vitex Negundo Linn. Verbenaceae

കരിമ്പ്‌

Sugar Cane, Sucanat, Turbinado

Saccharum Officinarum Linn. Gramineae

കരിമ്പന

Palmyra Palm, toddy palm, sugar palm

Borassus Flabellifera Linn., Blabelliformis Palmae

കരിമ്പോളം

Indian Water Chestnut, Caltrop

Trapa Natans Linn., Bispinosa Roxb. Trapaceae 

കരിമരുത്

Black Murdah

Terminalia Crenulata Roth Combretaceae

കരിമുതുക്കു

Giant potato

Ipomea Mauritiana

കരിവള്ളി

Black Creeper

Ichnocarpus Frutescens (Linn.)

കരിവേങ്ങരക്തചന്ദനം 

Red sandal

Pterocarpus Santalinus

കരുനൊച്ചി

Vitex Agnus, Chastetree

Vitex Agnus Castus – Verbenaceae

കർക്കടക ശ്രുംഘി

Crab’s Claw, Gall’s

Rhus Succedanea Linn. Anacardiaceae

കർകടകശ്രിംഘി

Zebra wood

Pistacia Integerrima

കർപ്പൂരം

Camphor

Cinnamomum Camphora Nees & Eberm.

കർപ്പൂരവള്ളി

Thick-Leaved Lavender

Anisochilus Carnosus Wall. Labiatae

കറപ്പ്

Saffron-Poppy  

Crocus Sativus

കറപ്പ്

Opium, White Poppy

Papaver Somniferum Linn. Papaveraceae

കറിവേപ്പ്

Curry Leaves

Bergera KoenigiiLinn. ,   Murraya Koenigii

കറുക

Bermuda Grass

Cynodon Dactylon Pers. Gramineae

കറുവ

Cinnamon

Cinnamomum Zeylanicum Breyn., Verum Presl.

കറുവപ്പട്ട

Camphor bark

Cinnamomum Tamala

കൽചെട

Clubmoss Spores

Lycopodium Clavatum Linn. Lycopodiaceae

കല്പ്പയാൽ

Rock fungie

Parmelia Perlata

കല്ലുവേങ്ങ

Sandan

Ougeinia Dalbergioides Benth., Oojeinensis

കല്ലൂർവഞ്ചി

Blistering Ammania, Aquatic Rotula

Ammania Baccifera Linn. Ssp. / Rotula aquatica

കള്ളിമുള്ള്

Prickly Pear, Indian fig opuntia, barbary fig

Opuntia Dillenii Haw. , Cactus Indicus Cactaceae

കഴഞ്ചി

Bonducella Nut, Fever Nut, Grey Nicker

Caesalpinia Crista Linn. , Bonduc

കശുവണ്ടി

Cashew Nut

Anacardium Occidentale Linn. Anacardiaceae

കണ്ണാന്തളി

Bicolor Persian Violet

Exacum bicolor

കസ്തൂരിമഞ്ഞൾ

Wild Turmeric, Yellow Zedoary

Curcuma Aromatica Salisb. Scitaminaceae

കസ്തൂരിവെണ്ട

Musk Mallow

Hibiscus Abelmoschus Linn., Abelmoschus Moschatus 

കാക്കത്തുടലി 

Forest Pepper, Wild Orange Tree, Orange climber

Toddalia Asiatica (Linn.) Lam. , Aculeata Pers.

കാകോളി

Kakoli

Fritillaria Roylei

കാഞ്ഞിരം

Nux vomica, Poison Nut tree

Strychnos Nuxvomica Linn. Loganiaceae

കാട്ടത്തി

Hairy Fig, devil fig

Ficus Hispida

കാട്ടുകടുക്

Dog Mustard, African spider-flower

Cleome Gynandra, Viscosa Linn. 

കാട്ടുകരിമ്പ്

Thatch Grass, Wild Sugarcane

Saccharum Spontaneum Linn. Gramineae

കാട്ടുകറിവേപ്പ്

Orange Jasmine

 Murraya paniculata

കാട്ടുകൊടി

Wild Pepper

Piper Chaba Hunter, Brachystachyum Wall.

കാട്ടുകൊവൽ

Pointed Gourd

Coccinia Indica Wight & Arun,  Cordifolia

കാട്ടുഗോതമ്പ്

Job’s Tear

Coix Lacryma-Jobi Linn., L. Lacryma Linn.

കാട്ടുജാതി

Bombay Mace, False Nutmeg

Myristica Malabarica Lam. Myristicaceae

കാട്ടുജീരകം

Wild cumin

Centratherum, Vernonia Anthelminticum Kuntze

കാട്ടുതുളസി

Shrubby Basil

Ocimum Gratissimum Linn., Frutescens Labiatae

കാട്ടുദർതാവ്

Sage weed

Salvia Plebeia R. Br. Labiatae

കാട്ടുപടവലം

Wild Snake Gourd

Trichosanthes Dioica, Lobata Roxb.

കാട്ടുപയർ

Wild Bean

Phaseolus Trilobus / Vigna Vexillatta

കാട്ടുപുതിന

Corn Mint, wild mint

Mentha Arvensis Linn. Labiatae

കാട്ടുമുല്ല

Wild Jasmine

Jasminum Angustifolium (Linn.) Willd. Oleaceae

കാട്ടുള്ളി

Indian Squill

Urginea Indica Kunth Liliaceae

കാട്ടുഴുന്നു

Wild blackgram

Teramnus Labialis Spreng. Papilionaceae

കാന്താരി

Cayenne, Birdeye chilly

Capsicum Annum Linn. Solanaceae

കാബേജ്‌

Cabbage

Brassica Oleracea Linn. Cruciferae

കായം

Asa foetida

Ferula Asa Foetida

കാരന്നാവ്-പൂപാതിരി 

Trumpet Flower Tree, Yellow Snake Tree

Stereospermum Suaveolens, Colais Ham.

കാരീരം

Caper Plant, Karir

Capparis Decidua (Forsk.) Edgew., Aphylla Roth

കാർകോകിൽ

Purple Fleabane, Babchi Seeds, Psoralea

Psoralea Corylifolia Linn. Papilionaceae

കിരിയാത്ത്‌

Chireta, The creat

Swertia Chirata Buch-Ham Gentianaceae

കിരിയാത്ത

Indian Gentian

Gentiana Kurroo Royle. Gentianaceae

കിലുകിലുപ്പ

Brown Hemp, Flax Hemp, Blue Rattleweed

Crotalaria Verrucosa Papilionaceae

കിളിതീനിപ്പഞ്ഞി

Black Oil plant, Intellect tree

Celastrus Paniculata Willd. , Cardiospermum

കീരിപച്ച

Mongoose Plant

Ophiorrhiza Mungos Linn. Rubiaceae

കീഴാർനെല്ലി

Stonebreaker, seed-under-leaf, Gulf Leaf

Phyllanthus Niruri

കുങ്കുമം

Saffron

Crocus Sativus Linn. Irideae

കുങ്കുമം

Saffron

Crocus Sativus Linn. Irideae

കുടംപുളി

Pot tamerind, Indian garcinia

Garcinia Gummi-Gutta (Linn.) Robs. Guttiferae

കുടകപ്പാല

Easter tree, Kurchi, Snow flake tree

Holarrhena Antidysenterica (White) Wall.

കുട്കി

Hellbore

Picrorrhiza Kurroa Royle Ex Benth.

കുട്കി

Kutki

Andrographis Paniculata

കുടങ്ങൽ

Mouse Ear Wort, Indian Pennywort

Merremia Emarginata (Burm.F.) Hall.F.

കുടമുല്ല

Arabian Jasmine, Tuscan Jasmine

Jasminum Sambac Ait. Oleaceae

കുന്തിരിക്കം

Indian Olibaum, Indian Frankincense

Boswellia Serrata Roxb. Burseraceae

കുന്നി

Indian Licorice, Crab’s eye  plant

Abrus Precatorius Linn. Tiliaceae

കുപ്പമേനി

India Acalypha

Acalypha Indica Linn. Euphorbiaceae

കുമ്പളം

Ash gourd

Benincasa Hispida Cogn., Cerifera

കുമ്പിൾ

Wite teak, Beechwood

Gmelina Arborea

കുരങ്ങുമഞ്ഞൾ

Arnotta Plant, Aploppas, Lipstic tree

Bixa Orellana Linn. Bixaceae

കുരുമുളക്

 Black Pepper

Piper Nigrum Linn. Piperaceae

കുറശ്ശാണി

Henbane, Black Henbane

Hyocyamus Reticulatus Linn. , Niger Solanaceae

കുറുംതോട്ടി

Country Mallow, Arrow leaf sida

Sida Rhombifolia Linn. Malvaceae

കൂണ്‍

Mushroom, Touchwood

Psolliota Campestris (Linn.) Fr. Agaricaceae

കൂരിൽ

South Indian Uvaria

Uvaria Narum  Wall.Ex. Wight, Unona Narum Dun.

കൂവ

Arrow Root

Maranta Arundinacea Linn./ Curcuma Angustifolia  

കൂവളം

Stone apple, Bael

Aegle Marmelos

കൂവളത്തില

Leaves of Bael 

Aegle Marmelos

കൃഷ്ണജീരകം

Small Fennel, Nigella Seed, Black Cumin

Nigella Sativa Linn. Ranunculaceae

കൃഷ്ണബീജം

Blue Morning Glory, Krishnabeeja

Ipomoea Hederacea Auct. Non Jacq.

കെടങ്ങ്‌

Prickly Sesban

Sesbania Bispinosa

കൈത

Screw Pine

Pandanus Tectorius Auct.Non Soland. 

കൈതച്ചക്ക

Pineapple

Ananas Cosmus Merr., Sativus Linn.

കൈപ്പൻ

Wild Sunflower

Helianthus quinquelobus

കൈപ്പൻപടവലം

Bitter snake-gourd

Trichosanthus Palmata 

കൈമരുത്

Sal, Sala tree

Shorea Robusta

കൊങ്ങിണി

Wild Sage, Lantana Weed

Lantana Camara Linn. , Aculeata Verbenaceae

കൊടകൻ

Indian Pennywort, Gotu Kola

Centella, Hydrocotyle Asiatica Linn. Umbelliferae

കൊട്ടം

Kuth Root, Costus

Saussurea Lappa, Costus Speciosus Sm. Scitaminaceae

കൊടിത്തൂവ

Climbing Nettle

Tragia involucrata

കൊത്തമര

Cluster Bean, Field Vetch

Cyamopsis Tetragonoloba Taub., Psoralioides Dc.

കൊഴിഞ്ഞിൽ

Wild Indigo, Fish Poison

Tephrosia Purpurea

കൊഴുപ്പ

Indian Parselane, pigweed, little hogweed

Portulaca Oleraceae Linn. Portulacaceae

കോട്ടില

Ceylon Oak, Lac tree, Kusum tree

Schleichera Oleosa Oken, Trijuga Willd.

കോലരക്ക്

Shell lac

Laccifer Lacca

കോവിദാരം

Kachnar, Orchid Tree, Mountain Ebony

Bauhinia Variegata

ഗണപതിനാരകം

Citron Tree

Citrus Medica Linn. Rutaceae

ഗന്ദരാജൻ

Dikamali-Gum Gardenia, Nanjundam

Gardenia Gummifera Linn. F. Rubiaceae

ഗ്രാമ്പു

Clove

Syzygium Aromaticum Merr 

ഗ്രീൻപീസ്

Pea, Garden Pea

Pisum Sativum Linn. Fabaceae

ഗരുഡക്കൊടി

Indian Birthwort

Aristolochia Indica Linn. Aristolochiaceae

ഗരുഡപച്ച

Resurrection plant

Selaginella rupestris

ഗിടോരൻ

Indian caper

Capparis Zeylanica

ഗുൽഗുലു

Indian Bedellum, Gum Gugal

Commiphora Mukul Engl. 

ഗോതമ്പ്

Wheat, Beardless Wheat

Triticum Aestivum Linn. Gramineae

ചക്കരക്കൊല്ലി

Periploca of The Woods

Gymnema Sylvestre Br.

ചങ്ങലംപരണ്ട

Devil’s Backbone

Cissus Quadrangularis

ചണം

Jute

Corchorus Capsularis Linn. Tiliaceae-

ചതകുപ്പ

Indian Dill (Kind of Fenugreek)

Anethum Sowa Kurz. , Peucedanum Graveolens

ചതുരകള്ളി

Square milk hedge, Antique Spurge

Euphorbia Antiquorum Linn. Euphorbiaceae

ചതുരപ്പുളി

Coromandel Gooseberry, Carambola Apple, Starfruit

Averrhoa Carambola Linn. Oxalidaceae

ചതുരമുല്ല

Chionanthus, Chaturamulla

Myxopyrum Serratulum A.W.Hill Oleaceae

ചന്ദനം

Chandana-White-Sandal-

Santalum Album  Sandalwood

ചന്ദനവേമ്പ്

Red Cedar, Indian Mahogany Tree

Toona Ciliate Roem. , Cedrela Toona Roxb.

ചമ്പകം

Golden or Yellow Champa

Michelia Champaca Linn. Magnoliaceae

ചരളം

Chir pine,  Longleaved pine

Pinus Roxburghi / Longifolia

ചാമ

Little Millet

Panicum Sumatrense Roth Ex. Roem. Et Schult.,

ചാമ്പ

Water cherry, Bell cherry

Zizigium Camini

ചിത്തിരപ്പാല

Asthma Weed, Snake Weed

Euphorbia Hirta Linn. , Pilulifera Euphorbiaceae

ചിർപൈൻ

Lng Leaved Pine   

Pinus Longifolia

ചിറ്റരത്ത

Java Glangal 

Alpinia Calcarata

ചിറ്റാടലോടകം

Small Malabar nut

Justicia Beddomei (Clarke) Bennet Acanthaceae

ചിറ്റെരിക്ക്

Madder Plant

Calotropis Procera Ait. Asclepiadaceae

ചീനപ്പാവ്, പാവ്

China root, Smilax China

Smilax China Linn., Glabra Liliaceae

ചീനികിഴങ്ങ്

Sweet Potato

Ipomoea Batatas (Linn.) Lam.

ചീരളം

Nyalei, Punniyava

Aglaia Roxburghiana

ചീവക്ക

Shikakkai

Acacia Concinna Dc. Mimosaceae

ചുണ്ട

Egg plant

Solanum Melongena Linn. / Solanum Xanthocarpum

ചുരയ്ക്ക

White Pumpkin, Bottle gourd

Cucurbita Lagrenaria Linn. Cucurbitaceae

ചുവന്നകയൂന്നി

Ayapana Tea

Eupatorium Triplinerve Vahl., Ayapan Compositae

ചുവന്നകൊടുവേലി

Red leadwort

Plumbago Rossea 

ചുവന്നമന്ദാരം

Tree orchid, Mountain Ebony

Bauhinia Variegata

ചൂരൽ

Common Rattan palms, Chooral

Calamus Rotang Linn. Palmae

ചെങ്ങഴിനീർക്കൂവ

Indian Crocus, Blackthorn

Kaempferia Rotunda Linn.& K.Longa. Scitaminaceae

ചെഞ്ചല്യം

Sal, Sala tree

Shorea Robusta

ചെണ്ടുമല്ലി, ബന്തി

French Marigold

Tagetus Erecta Linn. Compositae

ചെണ്ടൂരകം

Safflower, Parrot Seed, Wild Saffron

Carthamus Tinctorius Linn. Compositae

ചെത്തി

Jungle Geranium, Sacred Ixora

Ixora Coccinea Linn. Rubiaceae

ചെത്തികൊടുവേലി

Rosy-Flowered Leadwort, Fire Plant

Plumbago Indica Linn., Rosea Linn. Plumbaginaceae

ചെന്നാമുക്കി

India Senna, Tinnevelly Senna

Cassia Angustifolia Wahl., Senna Linn.

ചെമ്പരത്തി

Hibiscus 

Rosa Sinensis

ചെമ്പ്ലാവ്

Cork-leaved bayur, Chemplavu

Pterospermum Suberifolium Lam

ചെറിയഞെരിഞ്ഞിൽ

Small Caltrops 

Tribulus Terrestris Linn.

ചെറിയമലതാങ്ങി

Velvet Leaf

Cissampelos Pareira Linn. Menispermaceae

ചെറുകടലാടി

Small Prickly Chaff-Flower Plant

Cyathula Prostrata ln, Desmochaeta Prostrata

ചെറുചണ

Flax Plant, Linseed

Linum Usitatissimum Linn. Linaceae

ചെറുനാരകം

Lemon tree, Sour Orange, Seville Orange

Citrus Aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle Rutaceae

ചെറുനാരങ്ങനീര്

Lemon Juice 

Citric acid

ചെറുപ്പുള്ളടി

Tick Clover

Desmodium Triflorum (Linn.) Dc. Fabaceae

ചെറുപീര

Goose Foot, Wild Spinach

Chenopodium Album Linn. Chenopodiaceae

ചെറുമരുന്ന്

Indian Berberry, Tree Turmeric

Berberis Aristata

ചെറൂള

Mountain Knotgrasss

Aerva Lanata-Cheroola

ചേന

Elephant foot yam

Amorphophallus Campanulatus Blume

കാച്ചിൽ

Greater Yam, Asiatic Yam

Dioscorea Alata Linn. Dioscoriaceae

ചേനചെടി

Caravalla Seeds, Shona cabbage

Gynandropsis Gynandra Capparidaceae

ചേമ്പ്

Great-Leaved Caladium,  Giant Taro

Alocasia Macrorrhiza, Colocasia Esculenta (Linn.) Aroidaceae

ചേല, കല്ലിത്തി

Indian Laurel, Curtain fig

Ficus Microcarpa Linn.F. Moraceae

ജടാമഞ്ചി

Indian Valerian

Valerian Wallichi Dc. Valerianaceae

ജാതി

Nutmeg

Myristica Fragrans Houtt. Myristicaceae

ജീരകം

Cumin

Cuminum Cyminum Linn. Umbelliferae

ജീവകം

Dubard

Microstylis Wallichii- Root

ഞറ

Garden angelica, Wild celery, Njara, Selinum

Angelica Archengelica Linn., Selinum Tenuifolium

ഞള്ള്, ഞഴുക്

Leea Indica

Sambucina Linn. Leeaceae

ഞാഴൽ

Beauty berry

Callicarpa Macrophylla Vahl. Verbenaceae

ഞാവൽ

Black Plum

Eugenia Jambolana Lam., Syzgium Cumini Linn.

ഞെട്ടാഞൊടി

Country Gooseberry

Physalis Minima Linn. Solanaceae

ഞെരിഞ്ഞിൽ

Puncture Vine, Small Caltrops

Tribulus Terrestris Linn. Zygophyllaceae

ഞൊങ്ങണംപുല്ല്

Slender Carpetweed

Mollugo Cerviana Ser. Ficoidaceae

തക്കാളി

Tomato

Lycopersicum Esculentum Mill.

തക്കോലം

Star Anise Of China

Illicium Verum Hook.F. Magnoliaceae

തകര

Fetid Cassia, Ringworm Plant

Cassia Tora Linn. , Toroides , Fetida, Obtusifol 

തണ്ണിമത്തൻ

Watermelon

Citrullus Vulgaris Var. , Cucurbitaceae

തയ്ക്കുമ്പളം

Sweet Melon, Musk Melon

Cucumis Melo Var. Memordica

ത്രികോൽപ്പക്കൊന്ന

Indian Jalap, Turpeth

Ipomoea Turpethum Linn. , Operculina Ipomoea 

തവിഴാമ  

Heliotrope, Indian Turnsole

Heliotropium Indicum Linn. Boraginaceae

തഴുതാമ

Hogg Weed

Boerhaavia Diffusa Linn. Nyctaginaceae

താന്നി

Beach Almond, Beleric

Belliric Myrobalan Fruit Rind  Terminalia Bellirica

താമര

Sacred Lotus

Nelumbium Speciosum Willd. , Nucifera

താമരതണ്ട്

Pollen Of Lotus  

Nelumbo Nucifera

താർതാവൽ

Shaggy Button-weed

Spermacoce Hispida Linn. , Borreria Hispida K.Schum. 

താലനീലി

Arrow-leaf Morning Glory

Paederia Foetida Linn. Rubiaceae

താലീസപത്രം

Himalayan Silver Fir

Abies Webbiana Lindl. , Spectabilis G. Don.

തിണ്ടികവൃക്ഷം

Small Flowered Poison Sumac

Rhus Parviflora Roxb. Anacardiaceae

തിന

Foxtail Millet, Italian Millet

Setaria Italica Beauv. Gramineae

തിപ്പലി

Pippali  Long Pepper Fruit  

Piper Longum

തിരുതാളി

Heart leaf glory

Ipomoea Sepiaria Roxb. , Acut.Non (Linn.F.) 

തുമ്പ

Thumbe

Leucas Cephalotus Spreng. Aspera Link Labiatae

തുളസി

Holy Basil, Tulsi

Ocimum Sanctum Linn. Labiatae

തുവര

Pigeon Pea

Cajanus Cajan Mills,  Papilionaceae

തൃകൊൽപ്പകൊന്ന

St. Thomas lid pod, turpeth

Operculina Turpethum

തൃവിത്

Indian trueperth

Ipomoea Turpethum

തെങ്ങ്

Coconut palm, Asphalt

Nelumbo Nucifera /Asphaltum

തെരുവ

Palmarosa -Gingergrass

Cymbopogan Martini

തെരുവപ്പുല്ല്

Rosha Grass, Rusa Grass

Cymbopogon Martinii Wats

തേക്ക്

Teak

Tectona Grandis Linn. F. Verbenaceae

തേങ്ങ

Mineral Pitch, Asphalt

Asphaltum

തേയില

Tea Plant

Camellia Sinensis O. Kuntze,

തേറ്റാമ്പരൽ

Clearing Nut

Strychnos Potatorum Loganiaceae

തൈലപ്പുല്ല്

Lemon Grass

Andropogon Citratus Dc. , Cymbopogon Citratus Stapf

തൊട്ടാവാടി

Sensitive Plant

Mimosa Pudica Linn. Leguminosae

തൊണ്ടി

Hairy Fig, devil fig

Ficus Hispida

ദന്തപ്പാല

Pale Indigo Plant, Sweet Indrajao

Wrightia Tinctoria (Roxb.)R.Br. Apocynaceae

ദർഭ

Sacrificial Grass

Desmostachya Bipinnata Staff

ദേവദാരം

Himalayan Cedar

Cedrus Deodara

ധന്വയാസം

Khorasan Thorn

Fagonia Cretica, Arabica Linn. Zygophyllaceae

നനകിഴങ്ങ്

Yam, Lesser Yam

Dioscorea Esculenta Dioscoriaceae

നന്ദ്യാർവട്ടം

Indian Rosebay, Pinwheel flower

Tabernaemontana Divaricata R.Br.Ex Roem. & S

നർദിൻ

Indian Spikenard, Musk Root

Nardostachys Jatamamsi Dc

നറുനീണ്ടി

Indian Sarsaparila

Hemidesmus Indicus

നറുവരി

Indian cherry, Clammy cherry

Cordia Dichotoma

നാഗകേസരം

Cylon ironwood

Mesua Ferrea Stamen

നാഗദന്തി

Wild Castor, Red Physic Nut-

Baliospermum Montanum Muell. Arg. , Axillare

നാഗപുഷ്പം

Iron Wood Tree, Cobra’s Saffron

Mesua Ferrea Linn., Nagassarium-Guttiferae 

നാഗപൂ

Alexandrian Laurel

Ochrocarpus Longifolius Benth. & Hook. F. Guttiferae

നാഗബല

Gulsakri, Nagabala

Grewia Hirsuta Vahl Tiliaceae

നാഗമുല്ല

Snake Jasmine, Dainty Spurs

Rhinacanthus Communis

നായ്ക്കുരണ

CowPlant, Cowhage

Mucuna Pruriens Dc.,  Dolicos Pruriens

നാരങ്ങ

Indian Lemon

Citrus Limonum Burm. Or Sp. Risso. Rutaceae

നാലിലകീര

Four-leaf clover, Pepperwort

Marselia Minuta Marsiliaceae

നാലുമണിചെടി

Four O’clock Flower

Mirabilis Jalapa Linn. Nyctaginaceae

നിർവാസി

Nirbishi

Delphinium Denudatum Wall. Ex Hook

നിലംതെങ്ങ്

Little tree plant, Biophytum

Biophytum Candolleanum

നിലക്കടല

Peanut, Ground Nut, Monkey Nut

Arachis Hypogaea Linn. Fabaceae

നിലനാരകം

Goanese Ipecacuanha

Naregamla Alata W&A. Meliaceae

നിലപ്പന

Black Musale, Golden eye-grass

Curculigo Orchioides Gaertn. Amaryllidaceae

നിലമ്പരണ്ട

Tick Clover

Desmodium Triflorum (Linn.) Dc. Fabaceae

നിലവാക

India Senna, Tinnevelly Senna

Cassia Angustifolia Wahl., Senna Linn.

നീരാരൽ

Uttanjan

Blepharis Edulis Pers. Acanthaceae

നീർതൊട്ടാവാടി

Sensitive Water Plant

Neptunia Oleracea Lour. Mimosaceae

നീർമരുത്‌

Arjuna Myrobalan

Terminalia Arjuna Wight. & Am. Combretaceae

നീർമാതളം

Three-Leaved Caper

Crataeva Nurvala , Religiosa 

നീലഅമരി

Indigo plant

Indigofera Aspalathoides Vahl. Papilionaceae

നീലക്കീര

Pigweed, little hogweed

Portulaca Quadrifida Linn.

നീലക്കൊടുവേലി

Blue leadwort, Cape leadwort

Plumbago auriculata

നീലകൂവ

Curcuma Starch, Indian Arrowroot

Curcuma Angustifolia Roxb. Scitaminaceae

നീലയമരി

True Indigo, Indian Indigo

Indigofera Tinctoria Linn. Papilionaceae

നെന്മേനിവാക

Sirissa Tree,  woman’s tongues tree

Acacia Speciosa Linn./ Albizia lebbeck

നെയ്യുണ്ണി

Creeping Cucumber, Diversely-leaved melothria

Solena Amplexicaulis

നെല്ല്

Paddy

Oryza Sativa Linn. , Plena Chowdhury Poaceae

നെല്ലി

Indian Goose Berry

Emblica Officinalis

നെല്ലിക്ക

Amla Indian Goose Berry 

Emblica Officinalis

പച്ചമഞ്ഞൾ

Wet Turmeric  

Turmeric-Curcuma Longa

പച്ചോറ്റി

Lodh tree, Parala, Kamblivetti

Symplocos Cochinchinensis

പതിമുകം 

Brazil Wood

Caesalpinia Sappan Linn. Caesalpiniaceae

പഞ്ഞപ്പുല്ല്

Finger Millet, Indian Millet

Eleusine Coracana (Linn.) Gaertn.

പടവലം

Snake Cucumber

Utilissimus (Roxb.) Cucurbitaceae

പതിമുകം

Sappan Wood

Caesalpina Sappan

പനച്ചി

Gaub Tree, Ebony

Diospyros Tomentosa Roxb. Ebenaceae

പന്നൽചെടി

Black maiden hair, fern

Adiantum Lunulatum

പന്നികിഴങ്ങു

Vrddhi

Habenaria Intermedia D.Don Orchidaceae

പനിക്കൂർക്ക

Country Borage, Indian Borage

Coleus Amboinicus Benth., Plectranthus

പനികൂർക്ക

Thick-Leaved Lavender

Anisochilus Carnosus Wall. Labiatae

പയസ്വിനി

Dandelion, Blow Ball

Taraxacum Officinalis Weber Euphorbiaceae

പര്‍പ്പടകം

Two-Flowered Indian Madder

Oldenlandia Corymbosa Linn. , Biflora, Herbacea

പരുത്തി

Indian Tree Cotton

Gossypium Arboreum Linn. Malvaceae

പരുവമരം

Siamese Rough-Bush

Streblus Asper Linn. Urticaceae,   Moraceae

പർപടകം

Common Fumitory

Fumaria Indica Pungsley, Parviflora, Vaillantii

പറങ്കിമാവ്

Chashew Nut tree

Anacardium Occidententale

പലകപ്പയ്യാനി

Bone Setter

Vitis Quandrangularis Linn. , Wall. Vitaceae

പ്ലാശ്

Bastard Teak, Flame of the forest

Butea Monosperma Kuntze Frondosa 

പഴുതാരക്കാലി

Tapeworm Plant, Ribbon bush

Muehlenbeckia Platy Clados

പസളി

Indian Spinach, Malabar Nightshade

Basella Alba Linn. Chenopodiaceae

പാടത്താളി

Buckler-leaved moon

Cyclea Peltata (Lam) Hook.F.& Thomas.

പാണൽ

Ash Sheora, Orange berry or Gin berry

Glycosmis Arborea (Roxb.) Dc. Rutaceae

പായൽ

Duckweed, Vallisnaria, Soft hornwort

Serratophyllum Submersom Lemanaceae

പാരിജാതം

Night Jasmine, Coral Jasmine

Nyctanthes Arbor-Tristis Linn. Oleaceae

പാൽമുതക്ക്

Giant Potato, Wild Yam

Ipomoea Mauritiana Jacq., Paniculata R. Br.

പാവ്

China Root

Smilax China Linn., Glabra Liliaceae

പാവൽ

Bitter Gourd, Carilla Fruit

Momordica Charantia Linn. Cucurbitaceae

പാഷൻ ഫ്രൂട്ട്

Passion Flower

Passiflora Incarnata Passifloraceae

പിച്ചി

Royal jasmine, Spanish Jasmine

Jasminum Grandiflorum Linn. Oleaceae

പിനാർ

Sap trees

Garcinia Xanthochymus Hook. Guttiferae

പിയർ

Pear

Pyrus Communis Linn. Rosaceae

പിലു

Tooth brush tree, Vaan, Peelu

Salvadora Oleoides Dene. Salvadoraceae

പീച്ച്

Peach

Prunus Persica Stokes Rosaceae

പീച്ചിൽ

Ridged gourd, Sponge gourd

Luffa Amara Roxb. , Plucketiana, Foetida

പീചിലിങ്ങ

Wash Sponge, Sponge Gourd, Vegetable Sponge

Luffa Cylindrica Linn. Cucurbitaceae

പീരപെട്ടിക്ക

Bitter cucumber, Desert gourd

Citrullus Colocynthis 

പുകയില

Tobacco

Nicotiana Tabacum Linn. Solanaceae

പുട്ടിൽപീര

Bristly Luffa

Luffa Echinata Roxb. Cucurbitaceae

പുണ്യാവ

Wild Himalayan Cherry

Prunus Cerasoides- Prunus Mahalab

പുതിന

Spearmint

Mentha Spicia (Spicate), Viridis, Sylvestris Linn.

പുതിന

Peppermint

Mentha Piperita Linn. Labiatae

പുന്നാകം

Alexandrian Laurel

Ochrocarpus Longifolius Benth. & Hook. F. Guttiferae

പുലതാലി

Poison Bulb, Giant Crinum Lily

Crinum Asiaticum Linn. Amaryllidaceae

പുല്ലാഞ്ഞി

Paper flower climber, Ukshi

Calycopteris Floribunda Lamk. Combretaceae

പുളിഇല

Veins Of Tamarind Leaves 

Tamarindus Indicus

പുളിഞ്ചിക്കായ്

Gamboge

Garcinia Morella

പുളിയാറില

Indian Sorrel

Oxalis Corniculata Linn. Geraniaceae

പുളിവാക

Black Siris

Albizzia Odoratissima (Linn. F.) Benth. Mimosaceae

പുഷ്കരമൂലാ

Pushkar

Inula Racemosa Hook.F. Asteraceae

പൂച്ചക്കുരു

Job’s Tear

Coix Lacryma-Jobi Linn. , L. Lacryma Linn.

പൂവരശ്ശ്

Portia Tree, Indian tulip tree

Thespesia Populnea

പൂവാംകുറുന്തൽ

Iron weed, Ash-Colored Fleabane

Vernonia Cineria Less. Compositae

പെരികിലം

Hill glory bower

Clerodendrum Infortunatum Linn., Viscosum Vent.

പെരുംകുരുമ്പ

Rajmahal hemb

Marsdenia Tenacissima Wight. & Am.

പെരുംജീരകം

Fennel

Foeniculum Vulgare Mill., Anethum Foeniculum Linn. 

പെരുംതുമ്പ, കരിന്തുമ്പ

Malabar Catmint

Anisomeles Malabarica

പെരുമരം-ലക്ഷ്മിതരു

Tree of heaven, Lakshmi tharu

Ailantus Excelsa Roxb. Simaroubaceae

പേക്കുമ്മട്ടി

Colocynth (Root)

Citrullus Colocynthis 

പേരാൽ

Indian banyan

Ficus Bengalensis

പേരേലം

Greater Cardamom

Amomum Subulatum Roxb. Scitaminaceae

പേഴ്

Wild Guava, Slow match tree

Careya Arborea Roxb. Myrtaceae,

പൈൻ

Chir pine, Longleaved pine

Pinus Roxburghi / Longifolia

പൊങ്ങലം

Lucky Bean Tree  

 Putranjiva Roxburghii

പൊങ്ങില്യം-ലക്ഷ്മിതരു

Tree of heaven

Ailantus Excelsa Roxb. Simaroubaceae

പൊട്ടക്കാവളം

Peon, Poon Tree, Wild Indian Almond

Sterculia Foetida Linn. Sterculiaceae

പൊൻ‌കൊരണ്ടി

Salaretin

Salacia Reticulata Wight

പൊന്നങ്ങാണി

Sessile joyweed

Alternanthera Sessilis R. Br. Ex Dc.

 പൊള്ള

Levant Berries, Fish Berries

Anamirta Cocculus W & A. Menispermaceae

പോന്നാരവീരം

Negro Coffee

Cassia Occidentalis Linn. Caesalpiniaceae

പോപ്പി

Opium, White Poppy

Papaver Somniferum Linn. Papaveraceae

ബദാം

Almond

Amygdalus Commonis Linn

ബ്രഹ്മി

Thyme-Leaved Gratiola

Bacopa, Herpestis Monnieri Pennell Scrophulariaceae

ബ്ലീഡിംഗ് ഹാർട്ട്

Bleeding-heart

Clerondendrum Serratum- Spreng. Verbenaceae

ബാർലി

Kshara of Barley  

Hordeum Vulgare

ബീട്രൂട്ട്

Beetroot

Beta Vulgaris Linn. Chenopodiaceae

ബെന്നിചെടി

Blood-Veined Sage

Salvia Haematodes W. Labiatae

ബെല്ലഡോണ

Deadly Nightshade

Atropa Belladonna Linn. Solanaceae

മക്കി, ഇരവി

Gamboge

Garcinia Morella

മക്കിപൂവ്

Indian Wormwood, Fleabane, Mugwort

Artemisia Vulgaris Linn., Nilagirica Pamp.

മങ്ങോസ്ടിൻ

Indian Rhubarb

Garcinia Pedunculata Roxb. 

മങ്ങോസ്ടിൻ

Purple Mongosteen

Garcinia Pedunculata   

മഞ്ചട്ടി

Indian Madder

Rubia Cordifoia Linn

മഞ്ഞക്കടമ്പ്

Adina

Haldina Cordifolia Roxb. Rubiaceae

മഞ്ഞകരിംകണ്ണി

Chinese Wedelia

Wedelia Chinensis Merrill, Calendulacea Less.

മഞ്ഞട്ടി

Indian Madder

Rubia Cordifolia Linn. Rubiaceae

മഞ്ഞപ്പരുതി

Yellow-Flowered Cotton Tree

Gossypium Dc. Cochlospermaceae

മഞ്ഞമന്ദാരം

Phalg, Yellow orchid tree

Bauhinia Tomentosa Linn.

മഞ്ഞമുല്ല

Yellow jasmine

Jasminum Humile Linn., Chrysanthemum Roxb.

മഞ്ഞൾ

Turmeric

Curcuma Longa

മണൽകീര

Sand Herbage

Gisekia Pharnaceoides Linn. Ficoidaceae

മണല്കീര

Indian Parselane, pigweed, little hogweed

Portulaca Oleraceae Linn. Portulacaceae

മണിപ്ലാന്റ്റ്

Devil’s ivy, golden pothos

Rhaphidophora Laciniata (Burm.F.) Merr. 

മത്തൻ

Red Gourd

Cucurbita Maxima Duchesne. Cucurbitaceae

മത്തിപുളി

Brown Indian Hemp

Hibiscus Cannabinus Linn. Malvaceae

മധുര കിഴങ്ങ്

Sweet Potato

Ipomoea Batatas (Linn.) Lam.

മധുരനാരങ്ങ

True Sweet Lime

Citrus Limetta W&A.

മയിൽപീലി

Peacock’s Tail

Actinopteris Dichotoma Bedd. Polypodiaceae

മരപ്പയാൽ

Stone Flower

Parmelia Perlata (Huds.) Ach. Lichenes

മരപ്പായൽ

Rock fungie

Parmelia Perlata

മരമഞ്ഞൾ

Black Sandalwood, Tree Turmeric

Coscinium Fenestratum Gaertn. & Colebr.

മരമഞ്ഞൾ

Indian Barberry

Berberis Aristata

മരമുല്ല

Orange Jasmine

 Murraya paniculata

മരോട്ടി

Jangli Almond, Marothi Tree

Hydnocarpus Laurifolia Sleumer, Wightiana Blume. 

മലഇഞ്ചി

Java Glangal

Alpinia Galanga Willd. , Calcarata Scitaminaceae

മലതാങ്ങി

Velvet Leaf, Parrot Root,  Moonseed

Cocculus Hirsutus (Linn.) Diels

മലതാങ്ങി

Cyclea Peltata, velvet leaf

Cissampelos Pariera , Cissampelos Pariera

മലമന്ദാരം

Mountain Ebony

Bauhinia Racemosa oxb. Leguminosae

മലമ്പാവട്ട

Wild Cowry Fruit

Casearia Esculanta Roxb. Samydaceae

മലമ്പുന്ന

Chalta

Dillenia Indica Linn. Dillenisceae

മല്ലി

Cilantro Leaf

Coriandrum Sativum Linn. Umbelliferae

മല്ലിഇല

Celery leaf-Cilantro leaf

Apium Graveolens,

മൾബറി

White Mulberry

Morus Alba Linn. Urticaceae

മഴുക്കാഞ്ഞിരം

Axlewood  

Anogeissus Latifolia Wall.

മാങ്ങ

Mango, Spring Tree, Cupid’s Favorite

Mangifera Indica Linn. Anacardiaceae

മാതളനാരകം

Pomegranate

Punica Granatam Linn. Punicaceae

മുക്കാപീരം

Rough Bryony

Mukia Maderaspatana (Linn.) Roem.

മുക്കുറ്റി

Ground palm

Biophytum Sensitivum Dc. Geraniaceae

മുഞ്ഞ

Arani

Premna Integrifolia Linn. , Obtusifolia Verbenaceae

മുത്തങ്ങ

Chufa, Tiger Nut, Rush Nut, Musta  Nut Grass

Cyperus Esculentus Linn. Cyperaceae

മുത്തങ്ങ 

white water sedge, Bulrush, deergrass

Kyllinga Nemoralis Dandy. Ex Hutch , Monocephala

മുതിര

Horse Gram

Dolichos Biflorus Linn. , Vigna Unquiculata

മുതുക്ക്

Indian Kudzu

Pueraria Tuberosa Leguminosae

മുന്തിരി

Grapes

Vitis Vinifera Linn. Vitaceae

മുയൽ  ചെവിയൻ

lilac tasselflower

Emilia Sonchifolia (Linn.) Dc. Asteraceae

മുരിക്ക്‌

Indian Coral Tree, Moochy Wood Tree

Erythrina Indica Lam. Papilionaceae

മുരിങ്ങ

Horse Radish, Drumstick Plant

Moringa Oleifera Lam., Pterygosperma Gaertn.

മുരുത്തോൻ

Peon, Poon Tree, Wild Indian Almond

Sterculia Foetida Linn. Sterculiaceae

മുല്ല

Tree Jasmine

Jasminum Arborescens Roxb. Oleaceae

മുള, ഇല്ലി

Reed

Arundo Donax Linn. Gramineae

മുള്ള്ഇലവ്

Red Silk-Cotton(Elavu)

Salmalia Malabarica, Bombax Malabaricum 

മുള്ളൻ കുറുംതോട്ടി

Prickly Sida

Sida Spinosa Linn., Alba, Alinifolia Malvaceae

മുള്ളൻപാവൽ

Gac

Momordica Cochinchinensis Spreng. Cucurbitaceae

മുള്ളന്ചീര

Prickly Amaranth, Joseph’s-coat  

Amarantus Spinosus Amarantaceae

മൂങ്ങാപേഴ്

Cuddapa Almond, Charoli

Buchanania Lanzan Spreng. , Latifolia

മൂടില്ലതാളി

Dodder

Cuscuta Reflexa Roxb. Convolvulaceae

മെയ്സ്

Corn, Indian Corn, Maize

Zea Mays Linn. Poaceae

മേച്ചിൽപുല്ലു

Roofing grass

Saccharum Munja Roxb. Gramineae

മേചിൽപ്പുല്ല്

Breadgrass

Andropogon Iwarancusa 

മേന്തോന്നി

Wolf’s Bane, Glory Lily, Flame lilly

Gloriosa Superba Linn. Liliaceae

മൈലാഞ്ചി

Henna,  Persian Red, Egyptian Priven

Lawsonia Alba Lam., Inermis Linn. Lythraceae

മോതിരക്കണ്ണി

Climbing Flax

Hugonia Mystax Linn. Linaceae

യൂക്കാലി

Blue Gum Eucalyptus, Australian Fever Tree

Eucalyptus Globulus Labill. Myrtaceae

രക്തചന്ദനം

Red sandal

Pterocarpus Santalinus

രാമച്ചം

Beard grass, Bluestem grass

Andropogon Muricatus

രാമച്ചം

Khaskhas Grass, Vetiveria

Vetiveria Zizanioides Nash Gramineae

രുദ്രാക്ഷം

Utrasum-Bead Tree

Elaeocarpus Sphaericus (Gaertn.) K. Schum.

റാഗി

Finger Millet, Indian Millet

Eleusine Coracana (Linn.) Gaertn.

റാഡിഷ്

Radish

Raphanus Sativus Linn. Cruciferae

റോസ

Rose, Cabbage Rose, Pale Rose

Rosa Centifolia Linn. Rosaceae

ലിച്ചി

Lychee

Litchi Chinensis

ളൂയിക്ക

Governor’s Plum

Flacourtia Ramoutchi Fam., Indica Merr.

വഞ്ചിമരം

Indian Willow

Salix Tetrasperma Roxb. Salicaceae

വട്ടവള്ളി

Velvet Leaf

Cissampelos Pareira Linn. Menispermaceae

വൻകടലാടി

Apamarga 

Achyarnthes Aspera

വൻപയർ

Cowpea

Vigna Unguiculata / Cylindrica Papilionaceae,

വന്കടലാടി

Pasture weed

Cyathula Prostrata

വന്നിമരം

Sponge Tree

Prosopis Specigera Linn. Mimosaceae

വയമ്പ്

Sweet Flag, Calamus

Acorus Calamus

വയൽച്ചുള്ളി

Hygrophila (Root)  

Asteracantha Longifolia

വയൽമുത്തങ്ങ

Bush onion

Cyperus Bulbosus, Nyctanthes Arbor-Tristis

വയല്ച്ചുള്ളി

Hygrophila

Hygrophila (Root)- Asteracantha Longifolia

വലിയകച്ചോലം

Spiked Ginger Lily

Hedychium Spicatum Ham. Scitaminaceae

വലിയകടലാടി

Prickly Chaff Flower

Achyranthes Aspera Linn. Amaranthaceae

വലിയകുറുംതോട്ടി

Indian Country mallow

Pavonia Indica

വലിയഞെരിഞ്ഞിൽ

Large caltrops

Pedalium Murex Linn. Pedaliaceae

വലിയനറുവരി

Sebesten Plum

Cordia Wallichii ., Latifolia Roxb. Boraginaceae

വള്ളിചീര

Indian Spinach  Malabar Nightshade

Basella Alba Linn. Chenopodiaceae

വളളിചൊറിയണം

Indian Stinging Nettle

Tragia Involucrata, Cannabina Linn.

വള്ളിപ്പാല

Vomiting Swallow Wort, Indian Ipecac

Asclepias Asthmatica , Tylophora Asthmatica

വഴന

Malabar leaf, Indian bark.

Cinnamomum Tamala Nees & Eberm. Lauraceae

വഴുതന

Brinjal

Solanum melangona

വഷളചീര

Indian Spinach

Basella Rubra Linn. Chenopodiaceae

വാതംകൊല്ലി

willow-leaved justicia

Justicia Gendarussa Burm.F. 

വാതക്കൊടി

Naravelia

Naravelia Zeylanica (Linn.) Dc.

വാതകൊടി

Fox-Grape

Cayratia Carnosa Gagnep., Vitis Carnosa Linn.

വാൽമുളക്

Java Pepper

Piper Cubeba

വാൽമുളക്

Pepper, Indian Long pepper

Piper Longum Linn. Piperaceae

വാല്മുളക്

Tailed pepper

Cubeba Officinalis

വാളൻപുളി

Tamarind

Tamarindus Indica Linn. Leguminosae

വാളരിപ്പയർ

Sword Bean, Broad Bean

Canavalia Gladiata Dc., Censiformis Sensu Baker

വാഴ

Banana Tree  

Musa Paradisiaca

വാഴചെടി

Brown Peacock

Roscoea Purpurea Royle. , Prucera Wall.

വാഴപഴം

Plantain, Banana

Musa Paradisiaca Linn. , Sapientum

വാസ്തുചീര

Goose Foot, Wild Spinach

Chenopodium Album Linn. Chenopodiaceae

വിളാങ്കായ്

Elephant Apple

Feronia Limonia, Limonia Acidissima Linn.

വിളാവ്

Wood Apple

Feronia Limonia, Limonia Acidissima Linn.

വിഴാൽ

Embilia, False Black Pepper  

Embelia Ribes Burm. Myrsinaceae

വിഷ്ണുക്രാന്തി

Dankuni Plant, Slender Dwarf Morning Glory

Evolvulus Alsinoides Linn. Convolvulaceae

വെട്ടുപാല

Pale Indigo Plant, Sweet Indrajao

Wrightia Tinctoria (Roxb.)R.Br. Apocynaceae

വെടതല

Sicklebush, Bell mimosa, Chinese lantern tree

Dichrostachys Cinerea (Linn), Mimosa Cinerea

വെണ്ട

Okra, ladies fingure

Hibiscus Esculentus Linn. 

വെരുകുംപുഴു

Civet

 Fragrant Animal Excretion

വെറ്റില

Beetal leaf

Piper Betle Linn

വെറ്റിലകൊടി

Betel, Betel Leaf, Betel Pepper

Piper Betel Linn. Piperaceae

വെള്ളഎരുക്ക്

Mudar Bowstring Hemp 

Gigantic Swallow Wort-Calotropis 

വെള്ളക്കടുക്

White Mustard

Brassica Alba Rabehn. Cruciferae

വെള്ളക്കരിങ്ങാലി

White Cutch Tree, White Catech

Acacia Polyantha Will. Mimosaceae

വെള്ളകുറുംതോട്ടി

Hribera  

Pavonia Odorata

വെള്ളകൊടുവേലി

White Lead Wort , Doctorbush

Plumbago Zeylanica

വെള്ളനൊച്ചി

Chaste Tree, Chaste berry

Vitex Agnus-Castus Verbenaceae

വെള്ളപ്പാതിരി

Indian trumpet, Broken born

Oroxylum Indicum

വെള്ളപ്പൈൻ

Indian Koppel tree, White dammar

Vateria Indica

വെള്ളമഞ്ഞൾ

Mango-Ginger,  White Turmeric

Curcuma Amada Roxb./  Curcuma Zedoaria 

വെള്ളമരുത്

Flowering Murdah

Terminalia Paniculata Roth Combretaceae

വെള്ളമുസലി

White Musli

Chlorophytum Tuberosum Baker Liliaceae

വെള്ളരി

Cucumber

Cucumis Sativus Linn. Cucurbitaceae

വെള്ളവേലം

Cassia Flower, Sponge Tree

Acacia Leucophloea, Farnesiana Willd. Fabaceae,

വെള്ളിലം

Wild mussaenda, Dhobe tree

Mussaendra Frondosa Linn. , Flavescens Rubiaceae

വെള്ളൂരം

Flannel weed

Sida Cordata Borssum, Veronicaefolia Lam.

വെളുത്തുള്ളി

Garlic

Allum Sativum Linn. Liliaceae

വേങ്ങ

Indian Kino Malabar Kino

Pterocarpus Marsupium

വേനൽപച്ച

White weed, Appa Grass

Ageratum Conyzoides Linn. Asteraceae

വേപ്പ്

Indian Lilac, Margosa Tree

Azidiracta Indica A Juss. Meliaceae

വേലിപ്പരത്തി

Pergularia

Pergularia Daemia Chiov.

ശങ്കുപുശ്പം

Clitoris flower

Clitoria Ternatea

ശങ്ങപുഷ്പി

Canscora, Winged-Stem Canscora

Canscora Decussata Roem. Et. Sch. Gentianaceae

ശങുപുഷ്പം

Butterfly Pea, Clitoria

Clitoria Ternatea Linn. Papilionaceae , Fabaceae

ശതാവരി

Asparagus Root

Asparagus Racemosus Willd. Liliaceae

ശവക്കോട്ടപച്ച

Madagascar Periwinkle

Catharanthus Roseus G.Don. , Vinca Rosea Linn.

ശിംശപ

Indian Rosewood, Eetty

Dalbergia Sissoo

ശിവമുല്ല

Snake Jasmine, Dainty Spurs

Rhinacanthus Communis

ശീമനെല്ലി

Indian plum, coffee plum

Flacourtia Jangomas Flacourtiaceae

സബോള

Bulb onion, Common onion

Allium Cepa

സർപ്പഗന്ധി

Sarpagandha

Rauvolfia Serpentina.

സർപ്പപോള

Devil’s tongue, Bowstring hemp

Sansevieria Zeylanica, Roxburghiana Schult.

സവാള

Onion

Allum cepa

സാമുദ്രപ്പച്ച

Elephant Creeper, Woolly Morning Glory

Argyreia Speciosa Sweet, Nervosa Boj. , 

സിങ്കോണ

Quinine Bark, Peruvian Bark

Cinchona Officinalis Linn. Rubiaceae

സീതപ്പഴം

Custard Apple, Sugar Apple

Annona Squamosa Linn. Annonaceae

സൂചിമുല്ല

Needle Flower Jasmine

Jasmin Auriculata Vahl. Oleaceae

സൂര്യകാന്തി

Sunflower

Helianthus Annuus Linn. Asteraceae

സോപ്പുകുരുമരം

Indian Filbert, Soapnut Tree

Sapindus Trifoliatus Linn., Laurifolia Vahl

സോമലത

Ephedra,  Joint-pine, Mormon-tea

Ephedra Vulgaris Rich. , Gerardiana Ephedraceae

സോമവല്ലി

Mood Plant, Moon Creeper

Sarcostemma Acidum Voigt, Brevistigma W&A.

ഹരന്ദി

Chamror

Ehretia Laevis Roxb. Boraginaceae